Part I writing: (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on topic Starting Career in a Big City or Small Town? You should write at least 250 words following the outline given below in Chinese.
Starting Career in a Big City or Small Town
Want to be a small fish in a big pond or the other way round? Every graduate faces this question when he starts his career. Some prefer to stay in the big cities after graduation. To them, big cities mean more experiences, more opportunities to see the big world and more space for career development. At the same time, higher salary is another temptation.
But some other graduates want to start in small towns. Even though there may not be many big companies, they can have a quieter and less competitive life. Another reason is they can be a big fish in a small pond. They can easily get the management’s attention and may win promotion earlier.
As far as I am concerned, I prefer to start in a big city like Shanghai. A good begin is half the battle, and in Shanghai I can find a job in a big company where I can meet people from different places and cultures. I will learn from them what I can not get from textbooks.
PartⅡ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8 to10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
How to Be a Leader
At a moment when we are waiting to see whether we have elected a President or a leader, it is worth examining the differences between the two. For not every president is a leader, but every time we elect a President we hope for one, especially in times of doubt and crisis. In easy times we are ambivalent----the leader, after all, makes demands, challenges the status quo, shakes things up.
Leadership is as much a question of timing as anything else. The leader must appear on the scene at a moment when people are looking for leadership ,as Churchill did in 1940, as Roosevelt did in 1933, as Lenin in 1917. And when he comes, he must offer a simple, eloquent message.
Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who cut through argument, debate and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand and remember. Churchill warned the British to expect "blood, toil, tears and sweat", FDR told Americans that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself "; Lenin promised the war-weary Russians peace, land and bread. Straightforward but potent messages.
It also helps for a leader to be able to do something most of us can't: FDR overcame polio; Mao swam the Yangtse River at the age of 72. We don't want our leaders to be "just like us." We want them to be like us but better, special, more so. Yet if they are too different, we reject them. Adlai Stevenson was too cerebral. Nelson Rockfeller, too rich.
A leader must know how to use power (that' s what leadership is about) but he also has to have way of showing that he does. He has to be able to project firmness-no physical clumsiness (like Ford), no rapid eye movement (like Carter).
A Chinese philosopher once remarked that a leader must have the grace of a good dancer, and there is a great deal of wisdom to this. A leader should know how to appear relaxed and confident. His walk should be firm and purposeful. He should be able, like Lincoln, FDR, Truman, Ike and JFK, to give a good , hearty, belly laugh, instead of sickly grin that passes for good humor in Nixon or Carter. Ronald Reagan's training as an actor showed to good effect in the debate with Carter, when by his easy manner and apparent affability, he managed to convey the impression that in fact he was the President and Carter the challenger.
If we know what we're looking for, why is it so difficult to find? The answer lies in a very simple truth about leadership. People can only be led where they want to go. The leader follows, through a step ahead. Americans wanted to climb out of the Depression and needed someone to tell them they could do it, and FDR did. The British believed that they could still win the war after the defeats of 1940, and Churchill told them they were right.
A leader rides the waves , moves with the tides, understands the deepest desires of his people. He cannot make a nation that wants peace at any price go to war, or stop a nation determined to fight from doing so. His purpose must match the national mood. His task is to focus the people's energies and desires, to define them in simple terms, to inspire, to make what people already want seem attainable, important, within their grasp.
Above all, he must dignify our desires, convince us that we are taking part in the making of great history, give us a sense of glory about ourselves. Winston Churchill managed, by sheer rhetoric, to turn the British defeat and the evacuation of Dunkirk in 1940 into a major victory. FDR's words turned the sinking of the American fleet at Pearl Harbour into a national rallying cry instead of a humiliating national scandal. A leader must stir our blood, not appeal to our reason.
For this reason, businessmen generally make poor leaders. They tend to be pragmatists who think that once you've explained why something makes sense, people will do it. But history shows the fallacy of this belief. When times get tough, people don't want to be told what went wrong, or lectured, or given a lot of complicated statistics and plans (like Carter's energy policy)they don't understand. They want to be moved, excited, inspired, consoled, uplifted---in short, led!
A great leader must have a certain irrational quality, a stubborn refusal to face facts, infectious optimism, the ability to convince us that all is not lost even when we're afraid it is. Confucius suggested that, while the adviser of a great leader should be as cold as ice, the leader himself should have fire, a spark of divine madness.
He won't come until we're ready for him, for the leader is like a mirror, reflecting back to us our own sense of purpose, putting into words our own dreams and hopes, transforming our needs and fears into coherent policies and programs.
Our strength makes him strong ; our determination makes him determined; our courage makes him a hero; he is , in the final analysis, the symbol of the best in us, shaped by our own spirit and will. And when these qualities are lacking in us, we can't produce him; and even with all our skill at image building, we can't fake him. He is, after all, merely the sum of us.
In this passage the author is mainly talking about __________________.[1分]
the differences between a President and a leader
specific ways to become a leader
the makings (素质)of a leader
the relationship between personality and leadership
In the first two paragraphs the author emphasizes ___________________.[1分]
the necessity of distinguishing a leader from a President
the role of a leader in times of doubt and crisis
timing as a crucial factor in the rise of a leader
people's expectation of their President as a leader
The author points out in this article that virtually all great leaders are __________.[1分]
Outstanding speakers, witty and eloquent
able to come up with explicit and unquestionable solutions to problems or crises.
good at expressing their ideas in a simple, clear an effective way, bringing home their forceful messages to all people.
According to the author, what other qualities should a leader have?[1分]
He is special, able to do something most of us can, but should not be too different from us.
He knows well how to use power and has a way of showing how to exercise leadership
He has the grace of a good dancer and knows how to appear relaxed and confident
Reagan's training as an actor is mentioned as an example to show _________.[1分]
an easy and graceful manner
The difficulty in finding a good leader lies in the fact that _____________.[1分]
People know so little about leadership and they can only be led where they want to go.
People want their leader to be one of them and a step ahead of them
a leader will not emerge until leadership is needed
most potential leaders are too rational to be regarded as qualified leaders
Which of the following may serve to explain why businessmen can hardly make good leaders?[1分]
Practically-minded, they tend to appeal to people's reason rather than to their emotion in resolving any problem and crisis.
Concerned with actual results, they attach too much importance to basic facts and well-founded plans.
They are too rational to arouse in people's outbursts of enthusiasm.
In difficult times instead of being told what went wrong being given a lot of complicated statistics and plans, people want to be.[1分]
The passage tells that a great leader must possess such irrational qualities as and the ability to convince us that all is not lost even when we're afraid it is.[1分]
In the last paragraph, the author informs us of the fact a leader, in the final analysis, is shaped by our own spirit and will.[1分]
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
He didn't think the course is useful.
He thought the course was wonderful.
He wanted to take more optional courses.
He just couldn't understand the professor's lecture.
The woman would sew them back on.
The woman would quarrel with the man.
The man would not take the responsibility.
The man gave the woman a good suggestion.
The man wants to buy a table.
The man came to the café alone.
The table by the window is free for anyone.
The table by the window has been left for someone else.
The woman tries to have an interview with the man.
The interview will last for more than two hours.
The man still has time to make an interview.
The man agreed with the woman to have an interview at last.
The radiator is full of water.
The car is in dangerous condition.
The radiator doesn't work.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
To fix a time when he brings the paper to her.
To tell her his roommate Benjamin Jones is sick.
To tell her he can't go to her office today.
To ask her for information about a course she teaches.
To learn how he can graduate.
To consult the woman some information for his term paper.
To get some information about a course the woman teaches.
Come to her office in the afternoon.
Call her after her meeting.
Come to her office tomorrow afternoon.
Go to the library tomorrow morning.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
He learned from a friend about it.
He read it in a magazine.
They are made of pieces of aluminum.
They have triangles all over.
It was too heavy to hand.
It was easy to get rotten.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Question 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
They were possibly caused by man.
They were mostly caused by volcanoes.
They were certainly caused by nature.
We know nothing about their causes.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
The noises from the games.
The possible environmental damage.
The overindulgence of their kids.
The potential damage of the games.
The National Amusement Park.
The International Sculpture Park.
Wear clothes made of filmy material.
Take off their glasses before enjoying thrill rides.
Wear slipper and casual clothes.
Eat as much as possible before coming.
Question 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Until the girl accepts the ring.
The man has fallen in love with the girl at the first sight.
The man and the pretty woman were attracted to each other.
He will ask the woman to accept the diamond ring.
He will accept the fact and try to forget the woman.
He will throw the ring away.
He will tell the woman he cannot live without her.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says people need more information about how to safely use traditional medicines. The WTO now has (36) to suggest ways for public health officials to develop that information. The heath agency is part of the United Nations. Up to eight percent of people in (37) countries depend on traditional medicines. More and more people in (38)countries use them to. But the WHO notes that just because product are natural does not always mean they are safe. It says reports of band reactions have increased (39) in the last few years. In China, for example, about ten thousand harmful drug reactions were reported in 2002. There were just four-thousand (40) reported between 1990 and 1999. Traditional medicines are made from plants, animal products and (41). The heath agency says they remain largely outside government control. In most countries, traditional medicines can be (42) without a doctor's order. Sometimes they are (43) by friend or by patients themselves. (44). Lee Jong-wook id Director-General of the organization. Doctor Lee says (45). But hr says governments should have the tools to make sure people get the best information. Traditional healer would have to be skilled. And they would have to be list with the government. Also, people would have to be informed about how and where to report problems. Doctor Lee says (46)
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions:In this section,there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Culture shock is an occupational disease for people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most illness, it has its own symptoms and a cure.
Culture shock is accelerated by the anxiety that results from losing all familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to make purchases, when to accept and refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. These signs, which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, or customs, are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.
Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar signs are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or full of goodwill you may be, a series of supports have been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes discomfort: "The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad." For example, Americans who are in a strange land get together to grouse about the host country and its people, you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To a foreigner, everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.
What kind of people may suffer from culture shock?[1分]
According to the passage, the signs and cues which we are familiar with help us _________.[2分]
Most of the cues which we depend on for our peace of mind and our efficiency are obtained ___________.[2分]
According to the author, how would people who are suffering from culture shock feel?[2分]
Apart from rejecting the new environment, people who are suffering from culture shock may overestimate _________.[2分]
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive "attachment" period from birth to three may scar a child's personality and predispose to emotional problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby's work that children should not be subjected to day care before the age of three because of the parental separation it entails, and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments against such a strong conclusion.
Firstly, anthropologists point out that the insulated love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. For example, we saw earlier that among the Ngoni the father and mother of a child did not rear their infant alone--far from it. Secondly, common sense tells us that day care would not so widespread today if parents, care takers found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out, and even if they were, the results would be certain to be complicated and controversial. Thirdly, in the last decade, there have been a number of careful American studies of children in day care, and they have uniformly reported that day care had a neutral or slightly positive effect on children's development. But tests that have had to be used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue.
But Bowlby's analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to, say, more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics. Whatever the long-term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with. Children under three are likely to protest at leaving their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the transition to nursery easy, and this is undoubtedly, why more and more parents make use of child care at this time. The matter, then, is far from clear-cut, though experience and available evidence indicate that early care is reasonable for infants.
This passage mainly centers on ______.[1分]
infants under the age of three should not be sent to nursery schools
whether children under the age of three should go to nursery schools
there is not negative long-term effect on infants who are sent to school before they are three
there is some negative effect on children who are sent to school after the age of three
The phrase "predispose to" in the first of paragraph most probably means ____[1分]
According to Bowlby's belief, it is quite possible that _____.[1分]
men's personalities will be changed to some extent through separation from their parents
early day care can delay the occurrence of mental illness in children
children will be exposed to potential negative effects from early day care later on
some long-term effects can hardly be predicted
Those who are against the conclusion drawn from Bowlby think that _____.[1分]
traditional societies separate the child from the parent at an early age
day care does not necessarily have a negative effect on children
a child did not live together with parents among Ngoni
children do emotional problems when separated from parents
The writer concludes that ______.[1分]
it is difficult to make clear what is the right age for nursery school
it is not settled now whether early care is reasonable for children
it is not beneficial for children to be sent to nursery school
it is reasonable to subject a child above three to nursery school
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Anthropology is the study of human beings as creatures of society. It fastens its attention upon those physical characteristics and industrial techniques, those conventions and values, which distinguish one community from all others that belong to a different tradition.
The distinguishing mark of anthropology among the social sciences is what it includes for serious study of other societies than our own. For its purposes any social regulation of mating and reproduction is as significant as our own, though it may be that of the Sea Dyaks(文莱土著), and have no possible historical relation to that of our civilization. To the anthropologist, our customs and those of a New Guinea tribe are two possible social schemes for dealing with a common problem, and in so far as he remains an anthropologist he is bound to avoid any weighting of one in favor of the other. He is interested in human behavior, not as it is shaped by one tradition, our own, but as it has been shaped by any tradition whatsoever. He is interested in a wide range of custom that is found in various cultures, and his object is to understand the way in which these cultures change and differentiate, the different forms through which they express themselves and the manner in which the customs of any peoples function in the lives of the individuals.
Now custom has not been commonly regarded as a subject of any great moment. The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behavior at its most commonplace. As a matter of fact, it is the other way round. Traditional custom is a mass of detailed behavior more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions. Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter. The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and belief, and the very great varieties it may manifest.
According to the passage, we can say that anthropology______.[1分]
can deal with human beings as one group of the creatures in living world
can reveal an enormous diversity of traditions
can provide insights into the relationship between human beings and nature
can distinguish the human race from other creatures
For serious study, an anthropologist ______.[1分]
must not study his own culture
is not supposed to have a prejudice against any society
should focus on those societies which are historically related to each other
should not take an interest in his own culture
In the third paragraph, the author is trying _____.[1分]
to say that anthropology is more important than psychology
to strengthen the role custom plays in experience and belief
to draw our attention to the importance of custom
Which of the following does the author most probably agree with?[1分]
The goal of the anthropologist is to understand the way in which people express themselves
The anthropologist tries to understand why cultures are carried on without any change.
The anthropologist's professional interest is as wide as the variety of customs.
Which of the following is the best title for the Passage?[1分]
The Functions of Cultures.
Part V Cloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Today the world's economy is going through two great changes, both bigger than an Asian financial crisis here or a European monetary union there. The first change is that a lot of industrial_62_is moving from the United States, Western Europe and Japan to _63 _countries in Latin America, South-East Asia and Eastern Europe. In 1950, the United States alone _64_ for more than half of the world's economy output. In 1990, its _65_ was down to a quarter. By 1990, 40% of IBM's employees were non-Americans; Whirlpool, America's leading _66_ of domestic appliances, cut its American labor force _67_ 10%. Quite soon now, many big western companies will have more _68_ (and customers) in poor countries than in rich _69_ . The second great change is _70_ , in the rich countries of the OECD, the balance of economic activity is _71_ from manufacturing to _72_ . In the United States and Britain, the_73_ of workers in manufacturing has _74_ since 1900 from around 40% to barely half that. _75_ in Germany and Japan, which rebuilt so many _76_ after 1945, manufacturing's share of jobs is now below 30%. The effect of the _77_ is increased _78_ manufacturing moves from rich countries to the developing ones, _79_ cheap labor _80_ them a sharp advantage in many of the _81_ tasks required by mass production.
Part Ⅵ Translation(5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentence on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.